L'Europe jette les bases d'une Union de la défense — "Un moment historique"

Jean-Yves Le Drian le ministre de l’Europe et des Affaires étrangères à Bruxelles

Jean-Yves Le Drian le ministre de l’Europe et des Affaires étrangères à Bruxelles

Les ministres de la Défense et des Affaires étrangères de 23 Etats membres de l'UE (dont la Belgique) ont signé un accord à Bruxelles qui devrait poser les jalons de la création d'une Union de la Défense.

Une chose est sûre: ce n'est pas l'Union de la sécurité et de la défense qui a été créée le 13 novembre à Bruxelles, même si la ministre allemande de la Défense [Ursula von der Leyen] prétend le contraire. "La coopération structurée permanente est un jalon qui nous rapproche de cette ambition", a-t-elle ajouté.

La France et l'Allemagne espèrent renforcer ainsi la coopération militaire entre les États européens, tant sur les effectifs que sur les matériels, après des années de réductions budgétaires dans les programmes de défense et une tendance à se reposer sur la puissance américaine dans le cadre de l'Otan.

En théorie, cette coopération renforcée peut déboucher sur la mise sur pied d'un quartier général opérationnel pour des unités de combat de l'UE ou d'une plateforme logistique d'opérations.

La chef de la diplomatie européenne, Federic Mogherini, a décrit "un moment historique pour la défense européenne". A l'avenir, un groupe de pays pourrait, en tout cas, développer plus rapidement des drones, des satellites militaires, des chars, des avions de transport militaire ou des installations médicales de campagne. Ce pacte est le projet le plus ambitieux dans le domaine de la défense européenne depuis des décennies.

Et si, à peine relancée, l'Europe de la défense était déjà fragilisée?

Mais le Brexit prévu en mars 2019 approche et Londres - qui s'est exclu de la CSP avec le Danemark - n'a pas voulu faire obstacle à cette initiative.

L'UE veut aussi se doter prochainement d'un fonds pour stimuler l'industrie européenne de la défense, qui sera à terme doté de 5,5 milliards d'euros par an. Elle a aussi créé au printemps son premier QG militaire, qui pilote trois opérations non combattantes en Afrique.

L'Irlande, le Portugal et Malte n'ont pas rejoint à ce stade la CSP, qui sera officiellement lancée en décembre.

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